Darlington Pairs

What are Darlington Pairs?

Darlington pairs, also called Darlington transistors, are a package of two standard BJT transistors (bipolar junction transistor). One of the transistors is high-gain while the other is high current. They are used to amplify weak signals from one circuit to another circuit or microprocessor. This means that the tiny current from a sensor or micro controller I/O pin can be amplified to drive a large load. Darlington pairs can also be operated as an ON/OFF switch.

Darlington pairs work together as a single transistor but feature a much higher current gain. They also offer high input impedance in comparison to single transistors.

How do they work?

The emitter of one transistor is connected to the base of the other transistor which effectively creates one transistor.

Why should you use a Darlington pair?

Darlington pairs provide a very high current gain. Working as two transistors within one package, Darlington pairs have a very compact footprint which takes up minimal space on a board.

What applications do you use them in?

With high current gain, Darlington transistors are well suited to power applications such as driving motors and relays. Darlington pairs are ideal for application in display drivers, audio outputs, power regulators, light sensors, touch sensors and power supply outputs. It is not recommended to use them in applications that require high frequency as it is not possible to shut the base current off immediately.

Different types

Darlington pairs can consist of either NPN (negative-positive-negative) transistors, PNP (positive-negative-positive) transistors or both.

Darlington pairs are typically supplied in one of two ways. You can purchase them as an array (called a Darlington array) within a single integrated circuit (IC) package, or as a simple single discrete component.

Standard package type examples include SOT-23, SOIC, TO-220 and TO-252 (DPAK).
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Part Details Brand Transistor Type Maximum Continuous Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Pin Count Configuration Transistor Configuration Number of Elements per Chip Minimum DC Current Gain Maximum Base Emitter Saturation Voltage Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Collector Emitter Saturation Voltage Maximum Collector Cut-off Current Maximum Power Dissipation Dimensions Height Length Width Base Current Maximum Operating Temperature Minimum Operating Temperature
ON Semi 2N6387G NPN Darlington Pair, 10 A dc 60 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 10 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 60 V dc 3 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi 2N6387G NPN Darlington Pair, 10 A dc 60 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 10 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 60 V dc 3 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi BD677AG NPN Darlington Pair, 4 A dc 60 V dc HFE:750, 3-Pin TO-225 ON Semiconductor NPN 4 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-225 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 750 - 60 V dc 2.8 V dc - 40 W 7.8 x 3 x 11.1mm 11.1mm 7.8mm 3mm - +150 °C -55 °C
ON Semi BD677AG NPN Darlington Pair, 4 A dc 60 V dc HFE:750, 3-Pin TO-225 ON Semiconductor NPN 4 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-225 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 750 - 60 V dc 2.8 V dc - 40 W 7.8 x 3 x 11.1mm 11.1mm 7.8mm 3mm - +150 °C -55 °C
ON Semi MJF6388G NPN Darlington Pair, 10 A dc 100 V dc HFE:100, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 10 A dc 100 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 100 - 100 V dc 3 V dc - 40 W 10.63 x 4.9 x 16.12mm 16.12mm 10.63mm 4.9mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi MJF6388G NPN Darlington Pair, 10 A dc 100 V dc HFE:100, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 10 A dc 100 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 100 - 100 V dc 3 V dc - 40 W 10.63 x 4.9 x 16.12mm 16.12mm 10.63mm 4.9mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP100G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 60 V dc HFE:200, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 200 - 60 V dc 2.5 V dc - 80 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP100G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 60 V dc HFE:200, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 200 - 60 V dc 2.5 V dc - 80 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP110G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 60 V dc HFE:500, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 500 - 60 V dc 2.5 V dc - 50 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP110G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 60 V dc HFE:500, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 60 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 500 - 60 V dc 2.5 V dc - 50 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP121G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 80 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 80 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 80 V dc 4 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP121G NPN Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 80 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor NPN 5 A dc 80 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 80 V dc 4 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP126G PNP Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 80 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor PNP 5 A dc 80 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 80 V dc 4 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP126G PNP Darlington Pair, 5 A dc 80 V dc HFE:1000, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor PNP 5 A dc 80 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 1000 - 80 V dc 4 V dc - 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi ULN2003ADR2G NPN Darlington Pair, 500 mA 50 V HFE:1000, 16-Pin SOIC ON Semiconductor NPN 500 mA 50 V - SOIC Surface Mount 16 Single Single 1 1000 - - 1.1 V dc 50µA - 10 x 4 x 1.5mm 1.5mm 10mm 4mm 25mA +85 °C -20 °C
ON Semi ULN2003ADR2G NPN Darlington Pair, 500 mA 50 V HFE:1000, 16-Pin SOIC ON Semiconductor NPN 500 mA 50 V - SOIC Surface Mount 16 Single Single 1 1000 - - 1.1 V dc 50µA - 10 x 4 x 1.5mm 1.5mm 10mm 4mm 25mA +85 °C -20 °C
ON Semi TIP42CG PNP Darlington Pair, 10 (Peak) A, 6 (Continuous) A 100 V dc HFE:15, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor PNP 10 (Peak) A, 6 (Continuous) A 100 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 15 - 100 V dc 1.5 V dc 400µA 65 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm 2A +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP117G PNP Darlington Pair, 2 (Continuous) A, 4 (Peak) A 100 V dc HFE:500, 3-Pin TO-220 ON Semiconductor PNP 2 (Continuous) A, 4 (Peak) A 100 V dc 5 V dc TO-220 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 500 - 100 V dc 2.5 V dc 2mA 50 W 10.53 x 4.83 x 15.75mm 15.75mm 10.53mm 4.83mm 50mA +150 °C -65 °C
STMicroelectronics BD680 PNP Darlington Pair, 4 A 80 V HFE:750, 3-Pin SOT-32 STMicroelectronics PNP 4 A 80 V 5 V SOT-32 Through Hole 3 - Single 1 750 - 80 V 2.5 V 0.2mA - 7.8 x 2.7 x 10.8mm 10.8mm 7.8mm 2.7mm - +150 °C -65 °C
ON Semi TIP33CG NPN Darlington Pair, 10 (Continuous) A, 15 (Peak) A 100 V dc HFE:20, 3-Pin TO-218 ON Semiconductor NPN 10 (Continuous) A, 15 (Peak) A 100 V dc 5 V dc TO-218 Through Hole 3 Single Single 1 20 - 100 V dc 4 V dc 0.7mA 80 W 15.2 x 4.9 x 20.35mm 20.35mm 15.2mm 4.9mm 3A +150 °C -65 °C
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